Pudina (Mentha piperita)

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Peppermint (Mentha × piperita, also known as Mentha balsamea Wild.) is a hybrid mint, a cross between watermint and spearmint. Indigenous to Europe and the Middle East, the plant is now widely spread and cultivated in many regions of the world. It is occasionally found in the wild with its parent species.

Although the genus Mentha comprises more than 25 species, the one in most common use is peppermint. While Western peppermint is derived from Mentha piperita, Chinese peppermint, or “Bohe” is derived from the fresh leaves of Mentha haplocalyx. Mentha piperita and Mentha haplocalyx are both recognized as plant sources of menthol and menthone and are among the oldest herbs used for both culinary and medicinal products


Pudina – Mentha piperata is a plant which is used for the treatment of indigestion, pain in joints, diarrhea, cough, dysmenorrhea and fever.  

Latin name- Mentha piperata Linn. Mentha spicata
Family- Labiate

Names in different languages:

All the Indian dialects like Hindi, Bengali, Kannada, Gujarathi, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and so on utilize the name Pudina for the plant. In English the plant is known as Spearmint or Garden mint.

Arabic – Phujanaj
Bengali name – Pudina
Burmese name – Bhudina
Canada – Chetni-maruga
Hindi – Podina
Malayalam – Putina
Marathi name – Pudina


Rochani- Improves the taste perception

Pahari- Grow in the cool climate of hills
Pudina, Putiha, Pudina, Podinaka, Phudino, Podina



Mentha piperita


Classical categorization:

Bhavaprakash Nighantu – Anekaryanam varga
Nighantu Adarsha – Putikaranjadi varga
Dhanavantari Nighantu – Suvarnadi varga


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Peppermint was first described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus from specimens that had been collected in England; he treated it as a species,[11] but it is now universally agreed to be a hybrid.

It is a herbaceous rhizomatous perennial plant that grows to be 30–90 cm (12–35 in) tall, with smooth stems, square in cross section. The rhizomes are wide-spreading, fleshy, and bear fibrous roots. The leaves can be 4–9 cm (1.6–3.5 in) long and 1.5–4 cm (0.59–1.57 in) broad. They are dark green with reddish veins, and they have an acute apex and coarsely toothed margins.

The leaves and stems are usually slightly fuzzy. The flowers are purple, 6–8 mm (0.24–0.31 in) long, with a four-lobed corolla about 5 mm (0.20 in) diameter; they are produced in whorls (verticillasters) around the stem, forming thick, blunt spikes. Flowering season lasts from mid- to late summer. The chromosome number is variable, with 2n counts of 66, 72, 84, and 120 recorded. Peppermint is a fast-growing plant; once it sprouts, it spreads very quickly.


Mentha piperata is a perennial herb growing in the hilly regions or in the cold climatic regions of India. The plant has a strong odor and grows to a height of 1-2 foot. The leaves are slimy, dark and have a strong odor. The flowers are purple in color.Mentha spicata is also used as a synonym for Mentha piperata.

Pudina (Mentha piperita) medicinal properties:

Rasa (Taste) – Katu (Pungent)

Guna (Qualities) – Laghu (Light for digestion), Ruksha (Dry in nature), Teekshna (Strong)
Vipaka – – Katu (Undergoes Pungent taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Ushna (Hot)
Karma (Actions) – Kaphavata shamaka (reduces vitiated kapha and vata dosha)

Part used- Leaf, oil extract
Leaf juice- 5 to 10 ml

Cold infusion- 25 to 30 ml
Oil- 1 to 3 drops

Chemical constituents of Mentha piperata:

Peppermint has a high menthol content. The oil also contains menthone and carboxyl esters, particularly menthyl acetate.[35] Dried peppermint typically has 0.3–0.4% of volatile oil containing menthol (7–48%), menthone (20–46%), menthyl acetate (3–10%), menthofuran (1–17%) and 1,8-cineol (3–6%). Peppermint oil also contains small amounts of many additional compounds including limonene, pulegone, caryophyllene and pinene.[36]

Peppermint contains terpenoids and flavonoids such as eriocitrin, hesperidin, and kaempferol 7-O-rutinoside

The major constituents of the essential oil are: menthol, menthone, pule- gone, menthofuran, 1,8-cineole, menthyl acetate, isomenthone. The leaves contain flavonoid glycosides, eriocitrin, luteolin 7-O-rutinoside, hesperi- din, isorhoifolin, diosmin, eriodictyol 7-O-glucoside and narirutin, besides rosmarinic acid, azulenes, cholene, carotenes.

रोचनी वह्रिजननी वक्त्रजाड्यनिशूदनी |
कफवातहरी बल्या चर्द्यर्ह्रोचकवारिणी॥      ( आ. वि)




Peppermint generally grows best in moist, shaded locations, and expands by underground rhizomes. Young shoots are taken from old stocks and dibbled into the ground about 1.5 feet apart. They grow quickly and cover the ground with runners if it is permanently moist. For the home gardener, it is often grown in containers to restrict rapid spreading. It grows best with a good supply of water, without being water-logged, and planted in areas with part-sun to shade.

The leaves and flowering tops are used; they are collected as soon as the flowers begin to open and can be dried. The wild form of the plant is less suitable for this purpose, with cultivated plants having been selected for more and better oil content. They may be allowed to lie and wilt a little before distillation, or they may be taken directly to the still.


Medicinal uses of mint leaves: 

  • Pudina is used in many cuisines all over the world, to enhance the taste of the dish.
  • The leaves of Mentha piperata is used as carmative and helps in digestion of the food.
  • 1-3 drops of oil obtained after the processing from the plant is used with hot water to treat indigestion and relive colic pain.
  • The paste of the leaf of Mentha piperata is applied over the joints to relive pain and localized inflammation.
  • Cold infusion of the plant in a dose of 30-40 ml is used to relieve dysmenorrhea and fever.
  • The fresh juice of the leaf of Pudina, in a dose of 5 to 10 ml is given with honey to relieve cough and sore throat.
  • The paste of the leaf is applied over the skin to relieve itching sensation and wound associated with pus.
  • The distillate of the leaf is extracted and used in a dose of 1 to 3 drops with hot water to treat indigestion and bloating of abdomen.
  • Gargling is done by adding fresh juice of the leaf of Pudina with water to relieve bad odor from the mouth and treat inflammation of the gums.
  • The paste of the leaf of Pudina is given with first morsel of food to treat intestinal worms.

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Adverse effect:

Although it is used in many consumer products, mint may cause allergic reactions in some people, inducing symptoms such as abdominal cramps, diarrhea, headaches, heartburn, tingling or numbing around the mouth, anaphylaxis or contact dermatitis.

Formulations containing Putiha:

  • Antharth oil and liniment: It is a restrictive medication helpful to remember joint torment, lessen morning disorder and confined irritation after outer application.
  • Appirich syrup: Appirich Syrup is a restrictive Ayurvedic medication helpful as a canapé in youngsters. It improves taste in food and causes the youngster to feel hunger and eat well.
  • Calcurosin syrup: It is a restrictive Ayurvedic medication valuable to treat urinary bladder calculi and kidney stones.
  • Capsin cream: It is a cream utilized for outside application in rewarding joint torment, muscle fit and joint pain.
  • Kofsil syrup: Kofsil Syrup is a non-narcotic home grown hack syrup. It is utilized in the treatment of bronchial asthma, bronchitis, bronchospasm, unfavorably susceptible asthma and smoker's hack.
  • Acidowin tablet: It is a restrictive Ayurvedic medication valuable to treat hyperacidity, fart, reflux oesophagitis and movement affliction


Cultivars variety

Mentha × piperita 'Candymint'. Stems reddish.
Mentha × piperita 'Chocolate Mint'. Flowers open from bottom up; reminiscent of flavour in Andes Chocolate Mints, a popular confection.
Mentha × piperita 'Citrata'. Includes a number of varieties including Eau De Cologne Mint, Grapefruit Mint, Lemon Mint, and Orange Mint. Leaves aromatic, hairless.
Mentha × piperita 'Crispa'. Leaves wrinkled.
Mentha × piperita 'Lavender Mint'.
Mentha × piperita 'Lime Mint'. Foliage lime-scented.
Mentha × piperita 'Variegata'. Leaves mottled green and pale yellow.
"Mentha suaveolens" 'Apple Mint'. Foliage is light green and hairy. Used as a ground cover and for cooking


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Research articles related to Mentha piperata:

Anti-bacterial action: The antibacterial action of peppermint oil and various concentrates of Mentha piperita against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains was assessed in the current exploration work by agar well dissemination technique. The oil and concentrates likewise displayed huge cancer prevention agent movement and the oil appeared about half power when contrasted with the standard BHT. 

Anti- diabetic action: The current investigation was attempted with a target to watch viability of oral organization of Peppermint squeeze in alloxan initiated diabetic wistar rodents. The present exploratory investigation gives additional proof that oral organization of Peppermint juice for 21 days delivered a critical decline (p <0.0010) in the blood glucose level of alloxan incited diabetic rodents. 

Wound healing action: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of topical Mentha piperita and Cymbopogan citratus oil on wound healing. Diabetic induced infected wound treatment with topical Mentha piperita ointment treatment and their another essential ointment in Cymbopogan citratus wound contraction studies a circular piece08 mm2 in area 20th days compared wound healing study on the wound contraction studies a circular piece 08mm2 in area 18th days highly effective in Mentha piperita ointment.

Anti- fungal action: Essential oil of Mentha piperita was analyzed by GC and GC-MS and evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against Dreschlera spiciferaFusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceris and Macrophomina phaseolin. The oil was found to be effective against these fungal pathogens under laboratory screening. The antifungal activities of the oil increased with an increase in the concentration.

Anti-emetic action in chemotherapy: This investigation is planned for deciding the viability of Mentha spicata (M. spicata) and Mentha × piperita (M. × piperita) in forestalling chemotherapy-prompted sickness and regurgitating (CINV). The treatment and fake treatment bunches applied basic oils of M. spicata, M. × piperita, or a fake treatment, while the benchmark group proceeded with their past antiemetic routine. There was a huge decrease in the force and number of emetic occasions in the initial 24 h with M. spicata and M. × piperitain both treatment gatherings (p < 0.05) when contrasted and the control and no unfriendly impacts were accounted for. The expense of treatment was additionally diminished when basic oils were utilized.


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