Country borage (Parnayavani-Plectranthus amboinicus)

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Plectranthus amboinicus, when recognized as Coleus amboinicus, is a semi-delicious lasting plant in the family Lamiaceae[1] with an impactful oregano-like flavor and scent. The beginning of Plectranthus amboinicus is obscure, however it might be local to Africa, and potentially India. Plectranthus amboinicus is generally developed and naturalized somewhere else in the tropics where it is utilized as a zest and decorative plant.

Common names in English incorporate Indian borage, nation borage, Cuban oregano, French thyme, Indian mint, Mexican mint, soup mint, Spanish thyme. Plectranthus is the class (created by Kurt Polycarp Joachim Sprengel, 1766 – 1833). The species name, amboinicus alludes to Ambon Island, in Indonesia, where it was clearly experienced and portrayed by João de Loureiro (1717 – 1791). Ambon is a piece of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia. The name of the sort, Plectranthus, signifies "prod blossom", from the Greek "plectron" (spike) and "anthos" (bloom).


Parnayavani- Plectranthus amboinicus is an plant mentioned in Ayurveda for the treatment of cough, asthma, headache, indigestion, diarrhea and intestinal worms. 

Latin name- Coleus amboinicus Lour. Plectranthus amboinicus
Family- Labiatae

Names in different languages:
Hindi name- Patta ajwayin, Amroda, Patherchur , pathercheer

English name- Country borage, Indian mint, Indian borage
Bengali name- Pathar choor, Paterchur,Amalkuchi
Gujarathi name- Ovapan
Kannada name- Dodda patre, Sambrani, Sambrani soppu
Malayalam name- Panikoorka
Marathi name- Pan ova
Tamil name- Karpooravalli, Kurpurvallai
Telugu name- Karuvacru, Suganda vallekam, Karpoorvalli
French name   :Coleus d’Afrique , Plectrianthus aromatique
German name : Cubanischer oregano,Jamaican Thymian
Japenese name Koreusu amboinikusu , Kuuban oregano
Malay name  : Daun kucing (Indonesia) , Daun Kambing(Indonesia)
Russian name : Plektrantus aromatryi
Spanish name  : Oregano
Vietnamese name:Tan day le
Mah            :Pan-ova
Gujarathi name – Ovapana
Chinese name – Zuo Shou Xiang


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Chornika, Karpooravalli, Sugandhi, Parnika, Himasagar, Ashmari bheda


Coleus amboinicus Lour.
Coleus aromaticus Benth.



A member of the mint family Lamiaceae,[1] Plectranthus amboinicus grows up to 1 m (3.3 ft) tall. The stem is fleshy, about 30–90 cm (12–35 in), either with long rigid hairs (hispidly villous) or densely covered with soft, short and erect hairs (tomentose). Old stems are smooth (glabrescent). Leaves are 5–7 cm (2.0–2.8 in) by 4–6 cm (1.6–2.4 in), fleshy, undivided (simple), broad, egg/oval-shaped with a tapering tip (ovate).

The margins are coarsely crenate to dentate-crenate except in the base. They are thickly studded with hairs (pubescent), with the lower surface possessing the most numerous glandular hairs, giving a frosted appearance. The petiole is 2–4.5 cm (0.79–1.77 in). Flowers are on a short stem (shortly pedicelled), pale purplish, in dense 10-20 (or more) flowered dense whorls (cymes), at distant intervals, in a long slender spike-like raceme. Rachis 10–20 cm (3.9–7.9 in), fleshy and pubescent. The bracts are broadly ovate, 3–4 cm (1.2–1.6 in) long, acute.

The calyx is campanulate, 2–4 mm (0.079–0.157 in) long, hirsute and glandular, subequally 5-toothed, upper tooth broadly ovate-oblong, obtuse, abruptly acute, lateral and lower teeth acute. Corolla blue, curved and declinate, 8–12 mm (0.31–0.47 in) long, tube 3–4 mm (0.12–0.16 in) long. Trumpet-like widened; limb 2-lipped, upper lip short, erect, puberulent, lower lip long, concave. Filaments are fused below into a tube around the style. The seeds (nutlets) are smooth, pale-brown, roundish flattened, c. 0.7 by 0.5 mm (0.028 by 0.020 in)


Parnayavani is a small plant growing to a height of 1- 2 feet. The stem is fleshy but has less strength. The leaves are little oval, thick, fleshy and have hair like structure beneath with strong odor. The flowers are small, purple colored and are seen in the month of May- July. The plant is available and cultivated all over India in the temperate climate.

Rasa (Taste) – Katu (Pungent), Tikta (Bitter)

Guna (Qualities) – Laghu (Light for digestion), Ruksha (Dry in nature), Teekshna (Strong)
Vipaka –  Katu (Undergoes Pungent taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Ushna (Hot)
Karma (Actions) – Kaphavata shamaka (reduces vitiated kapha and vata dosha)

Part used- Leaf
Dosage- 5 to 10 ml of juice

Chemical constituents of Plectranthus amboinicus
The aerial parts of the plant yield an essential oil (0.1%) which contains thymol (79.5%); whereas in leaves carvacrol and camphor are major constituents. Leaves also contain a large amount of oxalacetic acid, flavonoid, cirsimaritin and beta- sitosterol.


The main chemical compounds found in the essential oil of Plectranthus amboinicus are carvacrol (28.65%), thymol (21.66%), α-humulene (9.67%), undecanal (8.29%), γ-terpinene (7.76%), p-cymene (6.46%), caryophyllene oxide (5.85%), α-terpineol (3.28%), and β-selinene (2.01%).[13] Another analysis obtained thymol (41.3%), carvacrol (13.25%), 1,8-cineole (5.45%), eugenol (4.40%), caryophyllene (4.20%), terpinolene (3.75%), α-pinene (3.20%), β-pinene (2.50%), methyl eugenol (2.10%), and β-phellandrene (1.90%). The variations can be attributed to the methodology used in the extraction process, seasonal variations, soil type, climate, genetic and geographical variations of the plant



तीक्ष्णा पर्णयवान्युष्णा कटुतिक्ता रसे लघुः । दीपनी पाचनी रुच्या मलसंग्राहिणी परम् ॥
अग्निमान्द्ये यकृद्रोगे ग्रहण्यामुदरक्रिमौ । विषूचिकायामश्मर्या मूत्रकृच्छ्रे च शस्यते॥      ( द्र.गु.वि)

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Uses of Indian borage:

  • The juice from the squashed leaves of Parnayavani is given in a portion of 5 - 6 ml with nectar to treat hack and rhinitis.
  • The new squeeze of Coleus amboinicus is given in portion of 10 ml with high temp water to treat intestinal worms.
  • The juice of the plant is given with juice of ginger to improve craving and treat acid reflux.
  • The glue and squeeze of the leaf is offered inside to treat renal and urinary calculi.
  • The juice of Parnayavani is given with decoction of Kutaja (Holarrhena antidysentrica) to treat the runs and touchy inside condition.
  • The glue of the leaf is applied over temple to treat cerebral pain.
  • Communicated juice of leaf  is applied around the circle to ease the agony in conjunctivitis
  • Juice is blended in with sugar is given to kids in colic, in asthma, incessant hack, strangury, analytics, gonorrhea, heaps and dyspepsia
  • Squashed leaves are utilized as nearby application to the head in cerebral pain and to diminish the torment and bothering brought about by centipedes
  • Communicated juice is applied around the circle to diminish the agony in conjunctivitis
  • The medication is additionally valuable in cardiovascular disability,cough,breathlesness,hiccups,dysurea and urinary calculi
  • Communicated juice of leaves are carminative and utilized in dyspepsia
  • The medication is utilized in vatavyadhi(akshepaka, apatantraka).It is likewise considered as helpful in hridroga
  • This medication is diuretic home grown specialist. Its leaves have a plesant smell and sharp taste
  • The medication is very helpful in issues of stomach related system,particularly gastrointestinal objections.


Adverse effects of country borage:
No adverse effect is known after the use of parnayavani. Some people suffer from burning sensation of the tongue and esophagus after the intake of juice of the leaf.

Ayurvedic medicines containing Coleus amboinicus
Byekof syrup: Byekof Syrup is a proprietary Ayurvedic medicine useful to treat cough, asthma and other respiratory disorders.

Grahanimihira taila: Grahanimihira Taila is an Ayurvedic oil used in the treatment of diarrhea, fever, cough, etc. This oil is used both for external and internal administration.


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Research articles related to Coleus amboinicus:

Anti- microbial study:  Ethanolic concentrate of Coleus amboinicus leaves were utilized for investigation of antimicrobial action. The antimicrobial movement was assessed against six bacterial strains with four distinct focuses by recognizing least inhibitory fixation and zone of hindrance. The most elevated antibacterial action was seen in Salmonella typhi at a convergence of 1000µg/ml. The most minimal antibacterial action was seen in Staphylococcus aureus at a grouping of 250µg/ml of ethanolic concentrate of Coleus amboinicus leaf separate.

Anti- bacterial  and Anti- fungal action:  The point of this investigation was to assess against bacterial enemy of parasitic action of six Lamiaceae family coleus plants dependent on their conventional uses (bosom milk energizers) from two Asian nations. All leaf removes demonstrated action in any event against one strain of microscopic organisms and the outcome shows that there were critical contrasts (p<0.05) between the exercises on microorganism. The base inhibitory centralization of all leaves removes went from 1.0 to 2.0 mg/ml in repressing the development of S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis. This investigation shows that the coleus plants leaves can be utilized as hostile to bacterial enemy of parasitic specialist separated from the bosom milk incitement properties.

Anti- oxidant and cytotoxic action: The aetylacetate and ethanolic concentrates of Plectranthus amboinicus, (Lour.) Spreng. Leaves were found to show cancer prevention agent action with IC50 esteem 350.74 µg/mL and 281.26 µg/mL by DPPH strategy. The ethanolic and aetylacetate extricates indicated a high cancer prevention agent movement by ß-Carotene-Linoleic Acid Method. N-hexane and aetylacetate extricates demonstrated intense cytotoxic impact on MCF7 with IC50 63.644 µg/mL, 7.647 µg/mL separately.


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