Chatraka-Mushrooms (Agaricus campestris)



Mushroom Agaricus campestris is mentioned in Ayurveda for the treatment of fatigue, low sperm count. improving the sperm count. It is a good source of proteins, Vitamin B, K, C and D. 

Latin name- Agaricus campestris Linn.
Family- Agaricaceae
Synonyms: Psalliota campestris

Classical categorization:

Charaka Samhita –  Shaka varga

Bhela Samhita – Shaka varg
Bhavaprakasha Nighantu – Shaka varga, Samsvedaja Shaka
Adarsha Nighantu – Bhuchhatrakadi varga
Kaiyyadeva Nighantu – Aushada varga
Madana Pala Nighantu – Shaka varga
Dravya Guna Vijnaana – Samsvedaja Shaka varga
Raja Nighantu – Shalmalyadi Varga



Bhumi sphota, Prithvi sphota- Emerges from the earth

Shilindra- Emerges from the stones
Kutumbaka – appears in bunches
Bhumi chatra, Bhu Chatra- Umbrella shaped structure emerging from earth
Sarpa Chatra, Bhumi kanda, Malatruna, Sumali, Bhukanda, Prithvi kanda, Rohisha,

Reference of Mushroom in Ayurveda:

Bhela Samhitha Sutrasthana 28th chapter under shaka varga 24-26th shloka. Here he has mentioned about different types like palala jata Chatraka , venu Chhatraka, gomaya chhatraka  and their respective gunas also mentioned.

In Bhela Samhitha chikitsa sthana 2nd chapter 35th shloka. In jwara chikitsa, chhatraka is mentioned in a formulation called Mahapaishashika ghrata where it is an ingredient.

Types of mushrooms as per Ayurveda:

According to Bhela samhitha:

  • Palala jatha chhatraka
  • Gomaya chhatraka
  • Venu chhatraka

According to Kaiyyadeva nighantu:

  • Krishna chhatraka
  • Sarpa chhatraka
  • Shwetha chhatraka
  • Raktha chhatraka

Some other references: White, Red, Black
Savisha chhatraka – poisonous
Nirvisha chhatraka – non poisonous

Names in different languages:

Hindi name- Khumi, Gucchi, Chhata, Chhatona, Phenchhatar, Sanpakichhatri

English name- Mushroom
Arabic name- Fitar
Assamese name- Kalphula
Bengali name- Chhata, Chhatakuda, Bhuchhati
Gujarathi name- Viladino Topp, Kagdanachhatra,Mindadnivali
Marathi name- Alambi, Alombe, Kalambe, Khumba
Kannada name- Anabe
Tamil name- Naikkodai
Telugu name- Kukkagodugu
Catalan name – Bolet decam,Bolet comu
Chamba name – Moksha,Mopsha
French name – Psalliote champetre
German name – Brachpitz,Champigon
Hausa – Namanangulu, Namankassa
Kashmir name – Manskhel
Konkani name – Kamila
Persian name – Chatrimar
Portuguese name – Cogumelo
Punjabi name – Bleophore
Spanish name – Agarico camperino
Tulu – Lambu, Kallambu


Varieties & adulterants - (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) 


 There are 200 consumable varieties. They are nutritious and spermatogenesis.

Varieties : There are many varieties which are broadly dassified into two - 1) Non poisonous and 2) Poisonous. The non poisonous variety is not black in colour, is very fragile. breaks easily and has an unclear nng below the umbrella The poisonous variety is foul smelling, has many colours and also has a big ring below the umbrella.





Morphology of Agaricus campestris:

Chatraka have a place with parasite realm. It develops fiercely all over India close to water source or instead of good dampness content in the dirt. It is likewise developed for its business use and utilized in numerous cooking styles. Mushroom has a feeble mid part and an umbrella molded top-thus the name Chatraka. Mushrooms are accessible fit as a fiddle and hues like pink, earthy colored, pale white, white, dark. Just a few assortments are eatable and some are toxic.  



The herb resembles an umbrella. Non poisonous variety is used as a vegetable. It is known as frog’s umbrella.

Distribution & Habitat

Hilly areas of Punjab Kashmir etc. It is cultivated like vegetables in USA. Germany. France and East Asia.


Chemical constituents:

 protein , vitamins of B complex. Vitamins K, C and D , tyrosinase;


Agaricus campestris medicinal properties:

Rasa (Taste) – Madhura (Sweet)

Guna (Qualities) – Laghu (Light) Snigdha (Contain moisture), Picchila (Slimy)
Vipaka – Madhura  (Undergoes Sweet taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Sheeta (Cold)
Karma (Actions) –Vatapitta shamaka (reduces vitiated vata and pitta dosha),
Kaphavardaka ( increase kapha dosha)

Part used- Whole fungus
Dosage- According to the requirement

Chemical constituents of Agaricus campestris:
A protein (2.75%) supplement and an excellent source of vitamins of B complex. Vitamins K, C and D are also present. Though all the amino acids are reported to be present, the concentration of tryptophane is particularly low.

Uses of Chatraka:

  • Chatraka is basically utilized like vegetable in foods everywhere throughout the world.
  • Chatraka is bubbled and is overcome with ghee to improve the sperm check.
  • Mushroom is cut into little pieces and bubbled in milk. This bubbled milk is expended in states of gauntness of the body and to improve the physical quality.
  • In states of hyperacidity, mushroom is brought with ghee or sugar treats.
  • Little amount of chatraka is taken with sugar candy in rewarding dry hack.
  • Mushroom is singed with ghee and expended to improve the sexual force.


Description of mushrooms as per Ayurveda:

White variety, clean, with the colour of bamboo, cow are good to eat. They do not increase Doshas, unlike other types of mushrooms.

Other mushrooms are heavy, can cause vomiting, diarrhea, fever and Kapha disorders.

Madhura – sweet
Vrushya – Aphrodisiac, improves sexual strength
Balya – improves strength and immunity
Rooksha – dry
Hima – coolant
Guru – heavy to digest
Durjara – heavy and hard to digest
Bhedana – may cause diarrhea
Tridoshala – can increase all three Doshas

The dwarf variety is astringent, Katu Vipaka (pungent taste conversion after digestion).
Black mushroom is sweet taste and Vipaka,
White musrhoom is guru – heavy to digest
Red mushroom can increase Doshas by small extent

Adverse effects:

A few assortments of mushroom are toxic and create loss of uproar, loose bowels, sickness, regurgitating, unfavorably susceptible rashes over the body, swollen lips, issues of the muscles and so forth. Subsequently care ought to be taken to choose the best possible assortment of mushroom.


Research articles related to Agaricus campestris:

Anti- oxidant potential: The concoction, bioactive, and cell reinforcement capability of twenty wild culinary mushroom species being devoured by the individuals of northern Himalayan districts has been assessed without precedent for the current examination. In spite of the fact that distinctions were seen in the net estimations of individual species all the species were seen as wealthy in protein and sugars and low in fat. Glucose was seen as the significant monosaccharide. Prevalence of UFA (65–70%) over SFA (30–35%) was seen in all the species with extensive measures of other bioactive mixes. All the species indicated higher viability for cell reinforcement limits. 

Anti- bacterial study: Antibacterial action of methanolic and CH3)2CO concentrates of Agaricus bisporus were resolved in-vitro against two pathogenic microorganisms Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus following agar well dispersion strategy utilizing various fixations (25, 50, 75 and 100%). Methanolic and CH3)2CO removes indicated powerful antibacterial action against tried microbes. Methanolic extricate indicated most extreme inhibitory impact against development of every one of the test bacterium.


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