Botanical Name: Randia dumetorum Poir.

Family: Rubiaceae



This drug mainly used as vamana dravya also it shows veerachana properties. Its thorns used in poisons.


Names in different Indian languages



Emetic nut tree


Mainaphal, madan


Kare, mangri, banegaru


Malankara, karacculi




Marukkaaraikai, Madkarai.


Manga, marrga, manda


Mainphal, Jauz-ul-Qai








Madana, Chhardana, Pindi, Shalayaka, Vishapushpaka

Karahata, Pinditaka, Rãtha


Randia  spinosa Poir.

Randia  brandisii Gamble.

Randia  longispina W. & A.

Randia  tomentosa W. & A. non Blume.

Xeromphis spinosa Keay.


Classification according to Charaka, Susrutha & Vagbhata



Asthapanopaga, Anuvasanopaga, Vamanä dravya, Phalini


Aragvadhadi, Mustakãdi, Urdhabhagahara







Varieties & adulterants - (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) 

  1. Madana -R. durnetorum
  2. sveta pinditalca. - R. uliginosa
  3. Suksma Pinditaka
  4. Mãhã Pinditaka




A large shrub or small tree about 6-10 m. with strong spines 1-3 cm. long; branches horizontal and dry. short.

Leaves- simple, opposite, fascicled on the suppressed branches, 3.5-5 x 2-3 cm., obovate, obtuse, wrinkled, shining above, pubescent above, base cuneate; petioles about 3 mm long, densely pubescent; stipules ovate, acuminate.

Flowers- First white then turns into yellow, appears at the end of short leaf-bearing branch lets, solitary or 2-3.

Fruit- globose, like a small crab-apple, yellowish, globose or brodly ovoid, longitudinally ribbed, 2-celled; pericarp thick.

Seeds- many, flat, imbedded in the pulp.


Distribution & Habitat

All over India


Chemical constituents:

 randialic or neutral saponin and randialic acid or acid saponin, Ursosaponin, ursosaponin, dumetoronins A,B,C,D,E & F; randoside A; arachidic, lignoceric, linoleic, oleic, palmitic & stearic acids



Rasa Madhura, Tikta

Guna Laghu, Ruksa

Virya - Usna

Vipãka Katu


Karma - Kapha-vãta hara, Chardana, virechana,Lekhana,

nervine, calmative, antispasmodic, emetic, anthelmintic, abortifacient

anti inflammatory, carminative, expectorant



Dosha: Eliminates kapha and pitta, vata (carminative).

Dhatu : Rakta (cures abscess), rasagami.

Mala : (enema), detoxifies kapha mala.



Visha roga, Pratisãya, Kustha, Vrana, Vidradhi, Gulma, Jvara

chlorosis, common cold,gout, asthma, cough, ulcer, colic, constipation, fever,  rhinitis and obstinate skin diseases

Part used:

  Fruit, seed



Refer Vama dravya  special specification in charaka Kalpa sthanâ

Powder 2-4 g

Decoction 50-100 ml



Internal uses:


Nervous system : Rind of fruit alleviates vata. Generally decoction is used.

Digestive System: Madanaphala has been used so extensively for inducing emesis in shodhan chikitsa that its name has become syonymous with emesis. It is extremely suitable for emesis as it does not cause any complications. Fruit rind and seeds are used for emesis- Fruit is emetic and also purgative, chotagogue and anthelmintic.. Rind is astringent. To induce emesis, powder of whole fruit (approximately 3-4 mass) is soaked in 1/2 chahatak water overnight. This liquid is filtered through cloth and is given to the patient after adding honey and saindhav Emesis starts in an hour if given on empty stomach, For instant emesis, dose of the seeds should be increased


Circulatory system: Since it purifies blood and alleviates swelling, it is used in many blood disorders and oedema induced by kapha and pitta. Fruit ground in a paste is applied over abscess.

Respiratory system : Being an expectorant; it removes the obstruction of kapha and cures common cold, asthma and cough.

Reproductive system : Being an emmenagogue, it is useful in dysmenorrhoea and painful labour.

Skin: Emit is diaphoretic and cures dermatoses, It can be used internally and externally in dermatoses.

Temperature : Since it is diaphoretic and dosha  purifier, it is used for instant relief in fever which occurs after meals and that which is induced by kapha.

Satmikaran : Madanphala is curative and antidote. It is used in obesity because it shows effect on the fats

Important Yogas  or  Formations:

 Caraka alone has described 133 formulations in his Kalpa sthanâ.

Màdanaphaladi varti, Madanãdi cürna etc.             




Therapeutic Uses:

(1) Apasmara- Powder of Madanaphala and seeds of Pinditaka (l0g.) are grinded with water and given orally (V.S.)

(2) Garbha sañga- Madanaphala is used for vaginal fumigation (S.S.a.10/l11).

(3) Jvara- Madanaphala, Pippali, Indrayavá and Madhuka should be given with warm water to induce vomiting in case of fevers (C.S.Ci.3/228).



Descriptions on  Ayurveda books / Nighandu:
















Medicinal plants of India ; Ayurveda

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