Botanical Name: Inula racemosa Hook. f.

Family: Compositae; Asteraceae



The controversy on identity of Pukaramula is as old as Ayurvedic literature.

Scientific classification: Elecampane belongs to the family Asteraceae (formerly Compositae). It is classified as Inula helenium.


Names in different Indian languages







Puskaramulam,Puskara Müla















Pushkara, Paushkara, Padmapatra, Kaashmira, Kushtha-bheda, Kãsmira, Kustha bheda, Ciram, Jiham, Tirtha, Dhira, Padma, Puskarãhva, Brahrnatirtha, Mülam, Vãtãhva, Phala patraka, Viram, vãsãri,Sugandhikam

 Inula racemosa Hook. f.

Classification according to Charaka, Susrutha & Vagbhata



Svasahara, Hikkanigrahana


Phala varga


Hidhmanigrahana (A.H.); Svãsagãmaka (A.S.)





Varieties & adulterants - (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) 

  1. N. stellata - [CV]
  2. Saussurea lappa [CV]
  3. Iris germanica [AD]
  4. Inula royeliana [AD]
  5. Malabar variety (botanically unidentified) [AD]
  6. Hedichyum spicatum [AD]
  7. Inula helenium




A tall; stout herb.

Stem- 0.2-1.5 high, rough, groved, Leaves leathery, rough above, densely hairy beneath, crenate.

Basal leaves- 20-45 x 12.5-18 cm., long-stalked, elliptic-Jane Shaped.- Stem-leaves . oblong, stem-clasping, often deeply lobed at the base.

Flowers- in heads/racemes, very large 3.8-5cm diameter. Outer bracts broad, tips triangular, bent back, inner bracts linear, sharp-pointed.

Fruit- achene, 4 mm long, slender, hairless. Pappus 8 mm. long, reddish.


Distribution & Habitat

At temperate and alpine Western Himalayas between 5,000-14,000 ft altitude. Found under cultivation at Garhwal and other places.



chemical constituents

inulin, sesquiterpene lactonesAlantolactone, soalantolactone, inunolide (germacranolide), dihydroisoalantolactone, Beta —sitosterol, D-mannitol, dihydroinunolide, neo-alantolactone, inunolise, sesquiterpene lactone (inunol), alantodiene etc.




Rasa Tikta, Katu

Guna Laghu, Tiksna

Virya Usna

Vipãka Katu

Karma Kapha-Väta hara, Hridya, Dipana,pachana, kasaghna, swasahara  

Antispasmodic, stomachic, antihistaminic, expectorant, anticatarrhal, cardio tonic, diuretic, uterine stimulant

Part Used— Root

Dosage— Powder 2-4 g.

Indications— Hikkã, Kãsa, sväsa, PãrvasüIa, Hrdroga, sotha, Adhmãna, Pãndu.

asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary disorders, skin disease, fever



External uses: It is an antifungal. it cures pus formation, swelling and pain Its powder is sprinkled over tuberculoid ulcers or its paste is applied. It is used in painful swelling. (Local application of paste is effective in lateral chest pain by which swelling and pain are relief )

Internal uses

Central Nervous system It stimulates brain and nervous system  hence it is useful in cerebral impairment and vata disorders.


Digestive system : Being pungent, bitter and ushna. it is a good appetizer, digestive and delitescent. It is used in anorexia, indigestion and flatulence.

Circulatory system : Cardiac stimulant and blood purifier, hence useful in cardiac debility and blood disorders. It is the best medicine for cardiac asthma.



Respiratory system : It acts as an expectorant by pungent, bitter and ushna properties. Thus it clears the airways and alleviates cough. dyspnoea and hiccoughs. It is useful in chronic cough, hiccoughs, dyspnoea and pleurisy. In these diseases, it alleviates doshas by killing bacteria and relieves fever and pain.  

Urinary system Stimulates kidneys and increases urine formation by tikshna, ushna, medogami and kaphagami properties. Therefore it is used in urinary disorders like dysuria.

Reproductive system Useful in amenorrhoea and dysmenorrhoea. it reduces pain during menstruation and flow becomes normal- It is also used as an aphrodisiac.


Skin : It is a diaphoretic though bitter, hence it is used in skin disorders.

Temperature Being ama digestive, diaphoretic and febrifuge, it is used in diseases like fever caused by vata-kapha and cold.

Satmikaran : Bitterness of pushkarmoola acts as a digestive and thus improves digestion and strengthens all dhatus. Useful in general debility, anaemia, improves cardiac circulation, tissue metabolism and relieves weakness.



Dosha : Vatakaphaghna.
Dhatu : Rasa
(fever, lateral chest pain), rakta, meda (anaemia).

Organ: lung

Important Yogas or Formations

Pushkarmooladi churna, Pushkaradi churna. - Puskaramillasava, Puskarãdi chura, Puskara churna,puskarãdi kalka, Pukarãdi kasäya, Bhat yogarãja guggula, Haritakyãdi chura.


Important research work going on

(1) Acute toxicity studies

(2) Attimcrobial property

(3) anti-dermatophytic activity

(4) Antifungal activity

(5) Antipyretic activity

 (6) Anti-inflammatory activity

(7) Anti platelet activity

 (8) anthelmintic activity

(9) Cardio tonic activity

 (10) Hypoglycemic activity

(11) Hypertensive activity

(12) serum cholesterol lowering effect


Therapeutic Uses—

(1) Hrdroga- Powder of Puskaramula should be taken with honey (V.M.).
(2)Pãrvasüla- Puskaramüla cürna is given with honey(B.R.)
(3) Käsa-svasa- Powder of Puskaramula should be administered with Dasamula Kasäya



Descriptions on  Ayurveda books / Nighandu:






Medicinal plants of India ; Ayurveda

Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants/Herbs mainly using in Ayurveda with good quality pictures and information like therapeutic usage of Medicinal Plants, cultivation, morphology, habitat, flower characters, Chemical content, parts used, research works etc.

medicinal plants