Aconitum heterophyllum (Ativisa) Medicinal uses, Morphology, Images,Side effects, Pharmacology


Botanical Name: Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle.

Family: Ranunculaceae

 

 Introduction:

 Carak considered this drug as prativisa, but Susruta considers A.palmatum as prativisa. it described under Lekhaniya, Arsoghna Vargas, Tikta skandha, sirovirecana dravyas

 

Names in different Indian languages

 

English

Atis Root, Aconite

Hindi

Atis

Kannada

Ativisa

Malayalam

Atividayam

Sanskrit

Ativisa

Tamil

Atividayam

Telugu

Ativisa

Unani

Atees

Folk

Patis

 

 

 

 

Synonyms

Ativishaa, Arunaa, Vishaa, Shuklakandaa, Bhanguraa, Ghunapriyaa, Ghunavallabhaa, Kaashmiraa, Shishubhaishajyaa,Vishwaa, Aruna, Ardrã, Upavisã, Kasäyã Krsnã, Ghuna Vallabhã, Cãndri, Pita Vallabhã, Prati Visa, Bhangurä, Madhya-deasthã, Mahausadha, Mãdri, Mrdvi, Raktã, Visvä, Visamã, Visa,  Suka Kandã, Sukla Kandã, Srngikã, Syama Kanda, svetã, Sveta Kanda, sveta  vaca.

 

Classification according to Charaka, Susrutha & Vagbhata

 

Charaka

Lekhaniya, Arsöghna, Tikta skandha, Sirovirecana

Susrutha

Pippalyãdi, Mustãdi, Vacadi

Lekhaniya, Arsöghna

 

Vagbhata

Lekhaniya, Arsöghna, Pippalyãdi, 

 

          
        

  

 

Varieties & adulterants - (CV – controversy, AD – adulterants) 

 

  1. Cherophyllum violosum [AD]
  2. sukla
  3. krsna
  4. aruna
  5. rakta
  6. sveta
  7. pita – Delphinium denudatum  - [CV]

 

 


Morphology

Roots biennial, paired, tuberous; whitish or grey. Stem erect, simple or branched, from 15-20 cm high. glabrous below, finely crispo-pubescent in the upper part.

Leaves heteromorphous, glabrous: lowest on long petioles (13cm); blade orbicular- cordate or ovate-cordate in outline with a usually narrow sinus (1-1.5 cm deep); usually 5- lobed to the middle, amplexicaul.

Inflorescence slender raceme or a lax, leafy panicle, crispo-pubescent; Sepals bluish or violet (rarely whitish); navicular obliquely erect, shortly or obscurely beaked, 18-20 mm high, 8-9 mm wide. Carpels 5, elliptic-oblong. Follicles contagious, linear-oblong, straight, 16-18 mm long.

Seeds pyramidal, 3-4 mm long, blackish brown.

 

 


Distribution & Habitat

commonly found in sub-alpine and alpine zones Himalayas from Indus to Kumaon at 2000-5000 m (6000-16000 ft.).

 

Chemical constituents:

Aconitine, Pseudoaconitine,Atidine , hetisine, heteratisine ,Diterpene alkaloids , heterophylline, heterophylline ,heterophyllidine heterophyllisine, hetidine, atidine & Atisenol, a new entatisene diterpenoid lactone from roots.     

F-dishydrçatisine, hetidine, hetisinone, heteratisine, hetisine, benzylleteratisine, beta —sitosterol, carotene and beta— isoatisine from rhizomes

 

 

 

Properties:

Rasa - Katu, Tikta

Guna -Laghu, Ruksha

Virya -Ushna

Vipaka -Katu

 

Karma - Dipana, Päcana, Grãhi, Tridosahara, sotha hara, Visaghna, Krmihara, Arsoghna, Jvara hara, Kãsa hara

Prabhãva- Visa hara

nonpoisosnous, antiperiodic, antiinflammatory, astringent, antispasmodic, immunostimulant

 

Toxic effects—

Over dosage (More than 5-6g) produces symptoms like dryness of mouth, tremors etc.

 

Pretreatment of A. palmatum root in cow’s milk and urine reduced the cardio-toxicity (Singh L.B. et al., 1985).

 

Srotogamitva:

 Dosha : Tridoshaghna. 
Dhatu : Majja (brain tonic), rakta. shukra. meda: 
Mala : Mutra (diuretic). purisha (laxative). sweda

 

 Indication:

Atisãra, Jwara, Kãsa, Bãla röga. Visa röga, Ama dosa, Chardi, Krimi roga, Agnimãndya, Rakta pitta, Yakrd roga, Trsnã, Pinasa, Arsa, Pittodara etc

Diarrhea, piles, low immunity, fever

Part used:

  The tuberous root is medicinally used both alone and in combination. Yogaratnakara mentioned that Haritaki may be used as the substitute for Ativisã.

 

Dosage: 

Root powder 1-3g per day (divided doses)

External uses

  The crushed eaves, mixed with saindhav are applied focally. The seeds crushed in honey are applied locally on throat, in tonsillitis. Nasal insufflations of roots is beneficial in headache (especially migraine).

 

Internal uses:

 

Respiratory system : The juice of roots along with milk is an expectorant Root powder is given orally in cervical lymphadenitis. 

 

Digestive system : Seed and root are used in ascites. Seeds are laxative. 

 

Urinary system : The seeds are diuretic, the root decoction reduces burning of urinary tract. It increases volume of urine, 

 

Reproductive system Root is used in sperrnatorrhoea. The decoction of roots is also used in burning of vagina. 

 

Circulatory system : The juice of leaves along with juice of zingier reduce perspiration.

 


Important Yogas  or  Formations:

Maharasnadi kashaya, rasna erandathi kashaya              

              

 

Therapeutic Uses:

(1) Bala röga— Ativisã alone or along with Karkatasrngi

and Pippali in case of cough and fever (A.H.Ut.2/57 & V.M.66/10)’.

 

(2) Atisära— Ativisã + Bhanga + Vacã as powder

 

(3) Jvaratisara— sunthi, Kutaja, Mustã, guduci & Ativisã are

given orally in the form of decoction .

 

(4) Grahani— The decoction made of Ativiã, sunthi & Mustã is administered orally to destroy the Ama (C.S.Ci.15/98)3.

 

(5) Mutra krçchra— Ativisã, Amla dravyas, Sunthi, Goksura, Kantakari are made as Peyã (gruel) and given along with Phãnita (jaggery syrup)- (C.S.Su. 2/22).

 

(6) Visa roga— A ghee prepared with Ativisã and cow’s milk is used orally or as nasal drops in case of acute poisoning. The ghee may also be processed with Sveta  and Madayantikã (S.S.Ka.1/64)

(7) Musika Visa— Ativisã root is made into paste by grinding with honey and administered orally (S.S.Ka. 7/39)’.

 

(8) Vrana— syonãka , Prativisã, Kantakãri müla are made into paste and applied over the wounds (A.H. Ut. 35/47)2.

 

(9) Kuksi roga /Udara rogas- 1 part Ativisa + 3 parts Añkola, administered orally with rice water (Tandulodaka)- (V.S. Grahaii. l67).

 

 

Descriptions on  Ayurveda books / Nighandu:

  

1

2

3

4

5

 

 

 

 

Medicinal plants of India ; Ayurveda

01 September 2013

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