INTRODUCTION:

THE GENUS TRIBULUS, BELONGING TO FAMILY ZYGOPHYLLACEAE, COMPRISES ABOUT 20 SPECIES IN THE WORLD, OF WHICH THREE SPECIES, VIZ. TRIBULUS CISTOIDES, TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS, AND TRIBULUS ALATUS, ARE OF COMMON OCCURRENCE IN INDIA.AMONG THEM, T. TERRESTRIS (TT) IS A WELL-PATRONIZED MEDICINAL HERB BY AYURVEDIC SEERS AS WELL AS BY MODERN HERBALISTS. THE PLANT IS USED INDIVIDUALLY AS A SINGLE THERAPEUTIC AGENT OR AS A PRIME OR SUBORDINATE COMPONENT OF MANY COMPOUND FORMULATIONS AND FOOD SUPPLEMENTS. IT IS AN ANNUAL SHRUB FOUND IN MEDITERRANEAN, SUBTROPICAL, AND DESERT CLIMATE REGIONS AROUND THE WORLD, VIZ. INDIA, CHINA, SOUTHERN USA, MEXICO, SPAIN, AND BULGARIA.THE PLANT IS FOUND UPTO AN ALTITUDE OF 11,000 FEET IN KASMIR.

 

VARIOUS USES OF THE PLANT T.TERRETRIS:

THE PLANT T.TERRETRIS HAS BEEN USED FOR A LONG TIME IN BOTH THE INDIAN AND CHINESE SYSTEMS OF MEDICINE FOR TREATMENT OF VARIOUS KINDS OF DISEASES. ITS VARIOUS PARTS CONTAIN A VARIETY OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS WHICH ARE MEDICINALLY IMPORTANT, SUCH AS FLAVONOIDS, FLAVONOL GLYCOSIDES, STEROIDAL SAPONINS, AND ALKALOIDS. IT HAS DIURETIC, APHRODISIAC, ANTIUROLITHIC, IMMUNOMODULATORY, ANTIDIABETIC, ABSORPTION ENHANCING, HYPOLIPIDEMIC, CARDIOTONIC, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, HEPATOPROTECTIVE, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC, ANTISPASMODIC, ANTICANCER, ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTHELMINTIC, LARVICIDAL, AND ANTICARIOGENIC ACTIVITIES. FOR THE LAST FEW DECADES OR SO, EXTENSIVE RESEARCH WORK HAS BEEN DONE TO PROVE ITS BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND THE PHARMACOLOGY OF ITS EXTRACTS.

COMPOUNDS IN THE PLANT:

THESE ARE THE SOME MAJOR COMPOUN DS EXTRACTED FROM THE PLANT. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTSTHE PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF TT REVEALED THE PRESENCE OF SAPONINS, FLAVONOIDS, GLYCOSIDES, ALKALOIDS, AND TANNINS. ACCORDING TO LITERATURE DATA, THE SAPONIN COMPOSITION AND THE SAPONIN CONTENT OF TTFROM DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHIC REGIONS IS DIFFERENT.KOSTOVA ET AL. STUDIED THE CHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY OF SAPONINS IN TT. THEY REPORTED THAT FUROSTANOL AND SPIROSTANOL SAPONINS OF TIGOGENIN, NEOTIGOGENIN, GITOGENIN, NEOGITOGENIN, HECOGENIN, NEOHECOGENIN, DIOSGENIN, CHLOROGENIN, RUSCOGENIN, AND SARSASAPOGENIN TYPES ARE FREQUENTLY FOUND IN THIS PLANT. IN ADDITION, FOUR SULFATED SAPONINS OF TIGOGENIN AND DIOSGENIN TYPEWERE ALSO ISOLATED. MAJORLY PRESENT ARE FUROSTANOL GLYCOSIDES INCLUDING PROTODIOSCIN AND PROTOGRACILLIN, OF WHICH PROTODIOSCIN IS THE MOST DOMINANT SAPONIN AND SPIROSTANOL GLYCOSIDES ARE PRESENT IN SMALL QUANTITIES.

Proerectile pharmacological effects ofTribulus terrestris extract on the rabbit corpus cavernosum:

A study was done with an eye to investigate the effect of oral treatment of Tribulus terrestris (TT) extract on the isolated corpus cavernosal tissue of New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits and to determine the mechanism by which protodioscin (PTN), a constituent of the TT, exerts its pharmacological effects.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four NZW rabbits were randomly assigned to 4 experimental groups of 6 each. Group I served as control. Groups II to IV were treated with the extract at different dose levels, i.e. 2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The TT extract was administered orally, once daily, for a period of 8 weeks. The rabbits were then sacrificed and their penile tissue isolated to evaluate the responses to both contracting and relaxing pharmacological agents and electrical field stimulation (EFS).

RESULTS: PTN on its own had no effect on the isolated corpus cavernosal strips. The relaxant responses to EFS, acetylcholine and nitroglycerin in noradrenaline precontracted tissues from treated groups showed an increase in relaxation of a concentration dependent nature compared to that of the tissues from control group. However, the contractile, anti-erectile response of corpus cavernosal tissue to noradrenaline and histamine showed no significant change between the treatment and the control groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The relaxant responses to acetylcholine, nitroglycerin and EFS by more than 10%, 24% and 10% respectively compared to their control values and the lack of such effect on the contractile response to noradrenaline and histamine indicate that PTN has a proerectile activity. The enhanced relaxant effect observed is probably due to increase in the release of nitric oxide from the endothelium and nitrergic nerve endings, which may account for its claims as an aphrodisiac. However, further study is needed to clarify the precise mechanism of its action.

 

CNS ACTIVITY OF T.TERRETRIS EXTRACT:

SWISS ALBINO MICE DEMONSTRATED ANTIDEPRESSANT AND ANXIOLYTIC ACTIVITY ON ADMINISTRATION OF 260MG/KG DOSE OF RASAYANA GHANA TABLET COMPRISING THREE POTENT WELL-ESTABLISHED REJUVENATOR HERBS, VIZ. TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (STEM), EMBLICA OFFICINALIS (FRUIT), AND TT (FRUIT AND ROOT), PRESENT IN EQUALQUANTITIES IN THE TABLET. IT WAS SUGGESTED THAT HARMINE, A Β-CARBOLINE ALKALOID PRESENT IN TT, IS ONE OF THE MAIN ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS THAT CONTRIBUTES TO THE ABOVE-MENTIONED ACTIVITIES. HARMINE IS ANINHIBITOR OF MONOAMINE OXIDASE WHICH HELPS TO INCREASE LEVEL OF DOPAMINE IN THE BRAIN.

PROTODIOSCIN,A MAJOR COMPOUND IN THE T.TERRESTRIS EXTRACT:

EXTRACTS FROM T. TERRESTRIS STANDARDISED FOR PROTODIOSCIN CONTENT HAVE BEEN DEMONSTRATED TO PRODUCE PROERECTILE EFFECTS IN ISOLATED TISSUES AND APHRODISIAC ACTION IN SEVERAL ANIMAL SPECIES. IT IS THOUGHTPROTODIOSCIN ACHIEVES THIS PRIMARILY THROUGH CAUSING AN INCREASE IN ANDROGEN RECEPTOR IMMUNOREACIVITY,MEANING IT INCREASES THE CONCENTRATION OF ANDROGEN RECEPTORS IN CELLS, CAUSING THE ORGANISM TO BECOME MORE SENSITIVE TO ANDROGENS LIKE TESTOSTERONE AND DHT.RECENT STUDIES CONFIRMED THAT THEPROERECTILE APHRODISIAC PROPERTY OF PROTODIOSCIN COULD POSSIBLY BE THE RESULT OF AN INCREASE IN ANDROGEN AND SUBSEQUENT RELEASE OF NITRIC OXIDE FROM THE NERVE ENDINGS INNERVATING THE CORPUS CAVERNOSUM.

 

PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS FRUIT EXTRACT ON CERULEIN-INDUCED ACUTE PANCREATITIS IN MICE: ANTIOXIDANT, ANTI-INFLAMMATORY, ANALGESIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS (T.TERRESTRIS) COULD BE HELPFUL IN THE TREATMENT OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS. T. TERRESTRIS EXTRACT 200 AND 400MG/KG (P.O.) AND T. TERRESTRIS EXTRACT 400 MG/KG (I.P.) REDUCED PANCREATIC TISSUE MYELOPEROXIDASE (MPO) ACTIVITY AND SERUM AMYLASE AND LIPASE LEVELS AND ALLEVIATED HISTOLOGICAL PARAMETERS. THESE DATA SUGGEST THAT T. TERRESTRIS HYDRO-ALCOHOLIC EXTRACT WAS EFFECTIVE IN PROTECTING AGAINST EXPERIMENTAL ACUTE PANCREATITIS AND POSSIBLY THE EFFICACY DEPENDS ON DOSE AND ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION.

SINCE ANCIENT TIMES, T. TERRESTRIS IS KNOWN AS AN APHRODISIAC HERB WITH STIMULATING EFFECTS ON THE ANDROGENIC METABOLISM IN HUMANS AND MALE ANIMALS . RECENT STUDIES SHOW THAT THIS PLANT CAN ALSO INFLUENCE FEMALE REPRODUCTION AND IMPROVE FEMALE SEXUAL DYSFUNCTION . ORAL TREATMENT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF TT INCREASES THE NUMBER OF GROWING FOLLICLES IN MICE, BUT WITHOUT SIGNIFICANT EFFECT ON THE SEX HORMONE LEVELS . THE INCREASE IN EGG PRODUCTION IN GUINEA FOWLS TREATED WITH TT EXTRACT REPORT . SHOWED HIGHER NUMBERS OF YELLOW BODIES IN THE OVARIES OF TREATED IMMATURE RATS AS AN EVIDENCE OF LH-LIKE ACTIVITY OF TT, CAUSING PUBERTY ONSET. MOREOVER, TT WAS SUGGESTED AS AN ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR POLYCYSTIC OVARY DISEASE. A HIGH DOSE OF THE EXTRACT CAN EFFICIENTLY REMOVE OVARIAN CYSTS AND RESUME OVARIAN ACTIVITY . IT SEEMS THAT TT AFFECTS FOLLICULOGENESIS IN FEMALES; HOWEVER, LIMITED INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE IN THIS REGARD AND THE MECHANISMS UNDERLYING THE ACTION OF TT REMAIN UNKNOWN.THE T.TERRESTRIS EXTRACT ACTS ON THE EXPRESSION OF BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN (BMP) 15 AND GROWTH DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR (GDF) 9.

EFFECT OF ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT ON SEMEN QUALITY AND BODY FAT INDEX OF INFERTILE MEN:

A STUDY WAS DONE TO EVALUTE THE EFFECT OF THE T.TERRETRIS EXTRACT ON THE SEMEN QUALITY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL FACTORS .COMPLETE SEMEN ANALYSIS EVALUATED AT THE END OF TREATMENT SHOWED SIGNIFICANT ENHANCEMENT IN SPERM CONCENTRATION, MOTILITY AND LIQUEFACTION TIME. PROTODIOSCIN, THE MAIN PHYTOCHEMICAL AGENT OF THE TRIBULUS GENUS, ACTS ON SERTOLI CELLS, GERM CELL PROLIFERATION AND GROWTH OF SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES. THIS COMPONENT IS KNOWN TO CONVERT TESTOSTERONE INTO DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE, WHICH PLAYS IMPORTANT ROLES IN MALE ATTRIBUTES. OUR RESULTS INDICATE THE THERAPEUTIC USE OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS BY MEN PRESENTING ALTERED SEMEN PARAMETERS, AND/OR UNDERGOING INFERTILITY TREATMENT.

ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF T.TERRETRIS EXTRACT:

IN A STUDY, ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF AN ETHANOL EXTRACT OF TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH CAPSELLA BURSAPASTORIS AND GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA WERE EXAMINED IN VITRO AGAINST SIX PATHOGENS NAMELY STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS, STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS, ACTINOMYCES VISCOSUS, ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS, AND ESCHERICHIA COLI. TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXTRACT EXHIBITED GOOD ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY AGAINST ALL BACTERIA. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF MIXED EXTRACT WAS EVALUATED AND EXHIBITED THAT MIXED EXTRACT WAS MORE EFFECTIVE AGAINST ALL BACTERIA THAN ANY OF THE CASES ALONE WHICH INDICATES THE SYNERGISTIC EFFECT BETWEEN THESE THREE EXTRACTS (P˂0.05). NO STRAIN SHOWED RESISTANCE AGAINST THESE EXTRACTS. IN AGAR DILUTION, TRIBULUS TERRESTRIS EXHIBITED MIC(MINIMUM INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION) VALUES RANGING FROM 35.0 TO 20.0 mg/ml AND MIXED EXTRACT SHOWED MIC VALUES RANGING FROM 12.5 TO 5.0 mg/ml. THE RESULTS OF BROTH DILUTION METHOD WERE CONSISTENT WITH THE FINDINGS OF THE AGAR DILUTION METHOD.ORGANIC AND AQUEOUS EXTRACT FROM FRUITS,LEAVES AND ROOTS SHOWS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND THE EXTRACT ALSO SHOWS ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY AGAINST THE FUNGUS CANDIDA ALBICANS WITH MIC 0.15 mg/ml.

Medicinal plants of India ; Ayurveda

Encyclopedia of Indian Medicinal Plants/Herbs mainly using in Ayurveda with good quality pictures and information like therapeutic usage of Medicinal Plants, cultivation, morphology, habitat, flower characters, Chemical content, parts used, research works etc.

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