Desmodium gangeticum Clinical Study

 

  Desmodium gangeticum

 Desmodium gangeticum

 

DESMODIUM GANGETICUM DC. WHICH BELONGS TO FAMILY FABACEAE, KNOWN AS SHALAPARNIISA WIDELY USED DRUG IN AYURVEDA. SHALAPARNI IS ONE OF THE CONTENTS OF LAGHUPAN CHAMOOLA AS WELL AS THAT OF DASHAMOOLA. THE PLANT IS AN ERECT, DIFFUSELY BRANCHED UNDER SHRUB, 90-120 CM IN HEIGHT WITH A SHORT WOODY STEM AND NUMEROUS PROSTRATE BRANCHES PROVIDED WITH SOFT GREY HAIRS. LEAVES SIMPLE, OVATE LANCEOLATE AND MEMBRANOUS. FLOWERS WHITE OR PURPLE OR LILAC IN ELONGATE LAX TERMINAL OR AXILLARY RACEMES. FRUITS MONILIFORM 6-8 GLABRESCENT, PODS SPARSELY PUBESCENT WITH HOOKED HAIRS, JOINTS SEPARATING WHEN RIPE INTO INDEHISCENT ONE SEEDED SEGMENTS, SEEDS COMPRESSED AND RENIFORM

 

seasonal and geographical variations in the chemical contents of the plant

ROOTS WERE COLLECTED IN VARIOUS MONTHS/PERIOD OF GROWTH FOR HPTLC DENSITOMETRIC QUANTIFICATION OF LUPEOL (PLATE 3). THE PERCENTAGE OF LUPEOL WAS VERY LOW IN THE MONTH OF JUNE IE, IN THE YOUNG PLANTS. THEN THEY INCREASE WITH GROWTH AND MAXIMUM PERCENTAGE OF LUPEOL WAS OBSERVED IN THE MONTH OF OCTOBER WHICH WAS THE FULL BLOOM PERIOD OF THE PLANT. ROOTS WERE COLLECTED FROM PLACES HAVING DIFFERENT AGROCLIMATIC CONDITIONS i.eFROM HIGH ALTITUDE, MEDIUM ALTITUDE TO PLAINS. THE SOIL TYPE ALSO VARIES FROM LATERITIC TO SANDY SOIL WHEN COMING FROM HIGH ALTITUDE TO LOW ALTITUDE. HPTLC DENSITOMETRIC QUANTIFICATION OF LUPEOL IN METHANOL EXTRACT OF ROOTS COLLECTED FROM VARIOUS GEOGRAPHICAL CONDITIONS WAS CARRIED OUT. THE RESULT SHOWED THAT THE QUANTITY OF LUPEOL WAS HIGH IN THE ROOTS COLLECTED FROM HIGH ALTITUDE AND LOWEST IN THE ONES COLLECTED FROM THE PLAINSY IT IS CONCLUDED THAT AS THE SEASONAL VARIATION IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE VEGETATIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE STAGES OF THE PLANT, IT HAS DIRECT INFLUENCE WITH THE VARIATION IN CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE PLANTS. IN THE PLANT, THE CONCENTRATION OF ACTIVE PRINCIPLES IS HIGH IN FULL BLOOM PERIOD, IT IS THE BEST PERIOD FOR COLLECTION FOR HIGH PERCENTAGE AND THIS IS CONTRADICTORY TO THE STATEMENT GIVEN IN CLASSICAL TEXTS, ACCORDING TO WHICH THE ROOTS SHOULD BE COLLECTED ONLY AFTER THE COMPLETION OF SEED SHEDDING.

 

Compounds of the plant and their effects.

NINETEEN COMPOUNDS OF VARIOUS CLASSES, SUCH AS FLAVONOID GLYCOSIDES, PTEROCARPANOIDS, LIPIDS, GLYCOLIPIDS, AND ALKALOIDS, WERE ISOLATED AND IDENTIFIED FROM THE DESMODIUM GANGETICUM WHOLE PLANT. AMINOGLUCOSYL GLYCEROLIPID (8) IS REPORTED HERE FOR THE FIRST TIME. ITS STRUCTURE HAS BEEN ELUCIDATED BY SPECTROSCOPIC AND DEGRADATION STUDIES. THIS NOVEL COMPOUND EXHIBITED IN VITRO ANTILEISHMANIAL AND IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITIES, AS IT ENHANCED NITRIC OXIDE (NO) PRODUCTION AND PROVIDED RESISTANCE AGAINST INFECTION ESTABLISHED IN PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES BY THE PROTOZOAN PARASITE LEISHMANIA DONOVANI. ANOTHER KNOWN COMPOUND, GLYCOSPHINGOLIPID (CEREBROSIDE) (7) WAS FOUND TO POSSESS SIGNIFICANT IN VITRO ANTILEISHMANIAL AND IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITIES AGAINST THE SAME PARASITE. OTHER COMPOUNDS WERE FOUND TO BE INACTIVE.

CHEMICAL EXAMINATION OF DESMODIUM GANGETICUM (LINN.) DC. ROOT AND AERIAL PARTS HAS RESULTED INTO LUPEOL, LAURIC ACID AND MIXTURE OF Β-SITOSTEROL AND STIGMASTEROL.DESMODIN,GANGETININ,GANGETIN ARE ALSO VERY COMMON CONSTITUENTS.

 

 

Lupeol a major component of root extract has various effects.

 

 

 

Another two components

 

 

 

Gangetin ,gangetinin and desmodin

 

GANGETIN, ONE OF THE PTEROCARPANS, ISOLATED FROM THE HEXANE EXTRACT OF THE ROOT OF THE PLANT DESMODIUM GANGETICUM.. THE COMPOUND SHOWED SIGNIFICANT ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY IN THE EXUDATIVE AND THE PROLIFERATIVE PHASES OF INFLAMMATION IN THE DOSES OF 50 AND 100 MG/KG ORALLY. THE COMPOUND SHOWED SIGNIFICANT ANALGESIC ACTIVITY. IT DID NOT SHOW ANY ANTI-FERTILITY AND ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS. IT DID NOT SHOW ACUTE TOXICITY IN MICE UPTO AN ORAL DOSE OF 7 G/KG.GANGETININ AND DESMODIN  ALSO SHOWS GASTRO PROTECTIVE EFFECTS AND SEVERAL STUDIES REVEALED THEIR EFFICACY.GANGETIN ALSO  HAVE  ANTINOCICEPTIC,CARDIOTONIC,ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT.GANGETIN SHOWS ANTIFERTILITY EFFECT BY  AFFECTING ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE  ACTIVITY IN THE UTERINE FLUID.

 

 

 

 

TO STUDY THE EFFECTS OF STIGMASTEROL AND Β-SITOSTEROL ON HIGH-FAT WESTERN DIET (HFWD)-INDUCED NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE (NAFLD), LIPIDOMIC ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED IN LIVER SAMPLES COLLECTED AFTER 33 WEEKS OF THE TREATMENT. PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS SHOWED THESE PHYTOSTEROLS WERE EFFECTIVE IN PROTECTING AGAINST HFWD-INDUCED NAFLD. PHYTOSTEROLS, AT A DOSE COMPARABLE TO THAT SUGGESTED FOR HUMANS BY THE FDA FOR THE REDUCTION OF PLASMA CHOLESTEROL LEVELS, ARE SHOWN TO PROTECT AGAINST NAFLD IN THIS LONG-TERM (33-WEEK) STUDY.

 

 

 

Free radical scavenging effect of the aqueous extract of the root in myocardial infraction.

THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM GANGETICUM (L) DC (FABACEAE) (DG) WAS STUDIED IN ISOPROTERENOL INDUCED MYOCARDIAL INFARCTED (MI) RATS FOR THE HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT. AFTER INDUCING MI BY ISOPROTERENOL (35 MG/KG B WT. I.P.), THE AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DESMODIUM GANGETICUM ROOT AT A DOSE OF 3 ML/100 G B WT. WAS ORALLY ADMINISTERED DAILY FOR A PERIOD OF 30 DAYS IN SIX RATS. ON INDUCTION OF MI, THE ACTIVITIES OF CREATININE PHOSPHOKINASE (CPK), LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (LDH), ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE (ALP) AND SERUM GLUTAMATE OXALOACETATE TRANSAMINASE (SGOT) INCREASED IN MYOCARDIAL TISSUE, HEPATIC TISSUE AND SERUM. PRETREATMENT OF DG TO MI RATS PREVENTED THE INCREASE OF THESE ENZYMES. THE HYPOCHOLESTEROLEMIC EFFECT OF DG WAS ASSESSED BY THE CONCENTRATION OF TOTAL CHOLESTEROL, LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (LDL) CHOLESTEROL, HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN (HDL) CHOLESTEROL AND THROUGH THE ACTIVITIES OF 3-HYDROXY 3-METHYL GLUTARYL CO-ENZYME (HMG COA) REDUCTASE AND LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYL TRANSFERASE (LCAT) IN THE MYOCARDIAL TISSUE. THE SIGNIFICANT (P < 0.001) DECREASE IN THE CONCENTRATION OF THIOBARBITURIC ACID REACTIVE SUBSTANCES (TBARS) AND IMPROVED ACTIVITIES OF GLUTATHIONE REDUCTASE AND CATALASE IN THE MYOCARDIAL TISSUES OF RATS TREATED WITH DG SUGGEST FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITY OF THE EXTRACT.

 

A Novel Approach for Oral Delivery of Insulin viaDesmodium gangeticum Aqueous Root Extract

A STUDY WAS DONE FOR THE OPRAL DELIVARY OF INSULIN VIA AQUOUS EXTRACT BOF THE PANT AND RESULTS WERE AS FOLLOWS -

WHEN AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF DG ROOT WAS USED AS A VEHICLE TO TRANSPORT INSULIN, IT NOT ONLY HELPS INSULIN TO GET ABSORBED ACROSS THE GI TRACT BUT ALSO IN ACTIVE FORM; (II) A SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN PLASMA INSULIN IN DIABETIC RATS AS COMPARED TO NORMAL RATS WHEN INSULIN WAS GIVEN ALONG WITH ITS VEHICLE PREDICTED A PROBABLE INSULIN SECRETAGOUGE ACTION OF DG(desmodiumgangeticum)MIXED INSULIN AND (III) ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF INSULIN ALONG WITH DG AQUEOUS EXTRACT SHOWED SIGNIFICANT CARDIO PROTECTION TO ISCHEMIA REPERFUSION INJURY IN RATS.

 

 

 

Various effects of aqueous root extract of DG

DESMODIUM GANGETICUM(DG) (LEGUMINOSAE) IS A SHRUB COMMON ON THE LOWER HILLS AND PLAINS THROUGHOUT INDIA. DG IS WIDELY USED IN THE INDIGENOUS SYSTEM OF MEDICINE IN INDIA AND IS REPORTED TO CONTAIN FLAVONE AND ISOFLAVONOID GLYCOSIDE. IT FORMS THE INGREDIENT OF MANY AYURVEDIC FORMULATIONS USED FOR DIABETES. MOREOVER, IT STRENGTHENS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, IMPROVES DIGESTION, AND SECRETION OF DIGESTIVE ENZYMES.] IT ALSO ACTS AS DIURETICS. IN THIS STUDY WE USED INSULIN MIXED WITH AN EXTRACT (AQUEOUS) OBTAINED FROM DG ROOT AS A VEHICLE TO TRANSPORT INSULIN ACROSS THE GI TRACT.

 

 

 

MEMORY ENHANCING ACTIVITY OF Desmodium gangeticum ROOT EXTRACT ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED SWISS ALBINO MICE

IN SOME RECENT STUDIES ON THE ROOT EXTRACT OF DG PLANT IT IS PROVED THAT  THE ROOT EXTRACT SHOWS A COMBINATION OF ANTICHOLINESTERASE, SEROTONERGIC AGONIST, NEUROPROTECTIVE EFFECTS THAT ALL MAY ALL BE EVENTUALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR MEMORY IMPROVING EFFECT.

 

 This article posted by Soumyadip Moitra for more details visit the category 

 

Medicinal plants of India ; Ayurveda

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