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Herbs - Medicinal plants usage and Identification Data base
Bhandira (Clerodendrum infortunatum) Medicinal uses
Bhandira - Clerodendrum infortunatum: Medicinal uses, Adverse effects,Research & Pharmacology
Bhandira- Clerodendrum infortunatum is an Ayurvedic herb used for the treatment of wounds, skin diseases, liver disorders, intestinal worms, fever and joint pain.
Latin name- Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn.
Names in different languages:
Hindi name – Bhant, Ghato
English name – Hill glory bower
Bengali name – Bhant, Ghentu
Gujarathi name – Bhanua
Kannada name – Basavana Pada, Ibbane
Marathi name – Bhandira, Kari, Bhat
Malayalam name – Peruku, Peravellam
Punjabi name – Kalibasuti
Tamil name – Perugilai, Karukanni
Telugu name – Basavanapadu, Gurrapu
Burmese name – Bujiphyu, Kaaungguly
Nepalese name – Chitu
Uttaranch name – Bhanua
Bhandir, Bhandi, Bhantaka
Clerodendrum infortunatum morphology:
A shrub or an undershrub with foetid smell. Stem grayish, lenticellate, branchlets slender, obtusely quadrangular, nodes swollen, gregarious and forming dense thickets. Leaves opposite, broadly cordate, orbicular or ovate-cordate, 7-28 x 6.5-25 cm across, base subtruncate, rounded or cordate, margin entire or subentire when young, apex shallow acuminate or acute, chartaceous, dark green above, slightly pubescent, slightly paler beneath, lateral veins 6-9 on either side of the midvein, impressed and prominent above, distinct beneath, ascending, margins, arcuate, petiole slender, cylindric, densely pubescent, about 3-15 cm long, exstipulate.
Inflorescence terminal panicles, with 6-14 cymes, peduncles obtusely quadrangular about 5 cm long, bracts elliptic, foliaceous, apex acuminate, densely pubescent, bractlets caducous. Flowers slightly fragrant, bisexual, zygomorphic, pedicel slender about 1-2 cm long, calyx 5 toothed, divided, pubescent, lanceolate, corolla hypocrateriform, 5 lobed, 1 upper lobe slightly bigger than other 4 lobes which are opposite, lobes elliptic, apex acute, white with pinkish throat, corolla tube narrow cylindric, pubescent, about 1.5-2 cm long, stamens 4, didynamous to subequal, exserted, filaments filiform, creamish white, anthers bilobed, ellipitic, ovary oblong, 4 lobed, 4 loculed, style filiform, stigma shortly 2-fid, Fruit drupaceous, subglobose about 1-1.5 cm in diameter, purplish black when ripe, calyx shallow cupular, pinkish.
Fruit usually with 4 dry nutlets and the seeds may be with or without endosperm. It flowers from April to August.
Clerodendrum species flowers are complete, bisexual, i.e., with functional male (androecium) and female (gynoecium), including stamens, carpels and ovary. Pollination is entomophilous i.e., by insects. Flowering/Fruiting: Almost throughout the year.
In terminal panicles of pedunculate cymes; white. Flowering throughout the year.
A globose drupe, black, enveloped in a persistent pink calyx. Fruiting throughout the year.
Branches 4-angled, densely twany; secondary nerves 5-7.
Ovate to orbicular
Bhandeera medicinal properties:
Rasa (Taste) – Tikta (Bitter)
Guna (Qualities) – Laghu (Light), Ruksha (Dry), Teekshna (Strong)
Vipaka – – Katu (Undergoes Pungent taste after digestion)
Veerya (Potency) – Ushna (Hot)
Karma (Actions) – Kaphavata shamaka (reduces vitiated kapha and vata dosha)
Part used- Leaf is the main used part.
Root and flowers are also used rarely.
Decoction- 10 to 20 ml
Chemical constituents of Clerodendrum infortunatum:
The major compounds are sterols, sugars, flavonoids and saponins. Novel crystalline compounds such as clerodolone, clerodone, clerodol and a sterol designated clerosterol have been isolated from the root. Seven sugars namely raffinose, lactose, maltose, sucrose, galactose, glucose and fructose were identified. Fumaric acid, caffeic acid esters, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol glucoside were isolated from the flowers. Apigenin, acacetin and a new flavone glycoside, characterised as the methyl ester of acacetin-7-0-glucuronide are isolated from the flowers. Saponin is one of the major compounds of the leaf. 24 beta-ethylsterols, clerosterol and 22-dehydroclerosterol, 24-methyl-sterols (24-methylcholestanol, 24-methylcholesterol, 24-methyl-22-dehydrocholesterol, and 24-methyllathostero) and 24 beta-ethyl-22-dehydrocholestanol are found in the seeds. Scutellarin and hispidulin-7-O-glucuronide are present in the leaf. Poriferasterol and stigmasterol are the components of the aerial parts.
It is found throughout India, commonly in forest and in road side, as weed.
It grows about 0.9 – 2.4 metre height.
It is also found in Ceylon, Malayan region, found in temperate region of India.
Medicinal Uses of Bhandira:
- The fresh juice of the leaves of Bhandira is applied over the wounds for quick healing.
- The paste of the leaves of Clerodendrum infortunatum is applied over the area having localized swelling to reduce it.
- The fresh juice of the leaf of the plant is given in a dose of 10 ml to treat liver disorders and remove intestinal worms.
- Cold infusion of the leaf is given in a dose of 30 ml to purify the blood in skin diseases.
- Fresh juice of the leaf is given in a dose of 10 to 115 ml to treat fever.
- The cold infusion of the leaf of Clerodendrum infortunatum is given in a dose of 30 ml to treat indigestion and improve the digestive capacity.
- The leaves of this plant are used as vermifuge and root rubbed down with butter milk is administered in colic pain.
- The fresh juice of the leaf acts as a laxative and is used to treat constipation.
Uses as per Ayurveda:
Rechana – induces purgation
Krumighna – Relieves worm infestation, useful in infected wounds
Sara – induces mobility, causes diarrhea, purgation, relieves constipation
Vishaghna – anti toxic
Ruchya – improves taste, relieves anorexia.
Jwara – fever
Kushta – skin diseases
Amavata – rheumatoid arthritis
Madhumeha – diabetes
Raktapitta –Bleeding disorders such as nasal bleeding, heavy periods, etc
Adverse effects: No adverse effect of Bhandira is known or reported.
Formulations containing Bhandira:
Rasnadi ghrita: Rasnadi ghritam is a herbal medicated ghee formulation used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthrits and Vata related disorders associated with pain.
Agastya rasayana: It is a ayurvedic medicine in lehya form used for the treatment of respiratory diseases like cough, asthma, bronchitis and to strengthen the lungs.
Bala oil: It is a medicated oil used for the treatment of vata predominat diseases like joint pain, paralysis, facial palsy, sciatica etc
Vathapy capsule: It is a proprietary ayurvedic medicine in capsule form for the treatment of hemiplegia and paraplegia.
Bronkasav liquid: It is a proprietary ayurvedic medicine useful to treat asthma, cough and other respiratory diseases.
Infectex granules: It is a proprietary ayurvedic medicine in granule form and is used for the treatment of Leucorrhoea, Gonorrhea, Dysmenorrhea and other Genito-urinary infections.
Research articles related to Clerodendrum infortunatum:
Anti- microbial potency: The present study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activity of C.infortunatum (Verbenaceae) with two different solvents viz; ethanol and ethyl acetate against medically important pathogens such as six gram positive bacterial strains, nine gram negative bacterial strains and seven fungal strains. Most of the extracts of root, leaf and stem of C. infortunatum are effective against both organisms; bacteria and fungi, especially leaf extract > root extract > stem extract.
Wound healing action: Validation of the ethno therapeutic claim of Clerodendrum infortunatum L. was investigated to evaluate its wound-healing potency in experimental rats. The chloroform and ethanol extract showed significant (P< 0.01) results compared with the control. The presence of bioactive constituents, including flavonoids, is thought to promote the wound-healing process due to their antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.
Hepato protective potential: Hepatoprotective potential of methanolic extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum Linn. (MECI), which is widely used in Indian indigenous system of medicine, was studied against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The study was evaluated by assaying the serum biochemical parameters glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and total protein. The results of this study revealed that methanol extract of C. infortunatum has moderate hepato- protective activity. This effect may be due to the ability of the extract to inhibit lipid peroxidation and increase in the anti-oxidant enzymatic activity.
- In Samhitas, the herb Bhandir” has not been mentioned; instead, he mentioned Tanduliyaka which belongs to different family (Amaranthaceae), according to some authors.
- Tanduliyaka has also been given synonyms Bhandi, Bhandira by “Bhavamisra”.
- Bhandir the drug does not match with the Bhandi described by Charaka Sutra sthana.
- Bhandi of Susrutha cikitsa is identified as manjista.
- Dalhana identified Bhandi as Lady’s fingure.
- Bapal vaidya considers clerodendron infortunatum Linn as one of the sources of Granthi parna.